Horse (Equus Caballus)
Asb (in farsi)
In Pre-Islamic Persia:
In Iran, skeletal remains of a native breed of small size, have
been discovered in prehistoric sites: in a cave at Behistun (Bisotun),
48 km east of Kermanshah and in Tamtama, a mountainous area west
of lake Urmia, in Tel-i Iblis, south-central Iran, and in Godin
Tepe, central Zagros. This breed has tentatively been cosidered
as the origin of the "Caspian miniature horse" now occasionally
found in Mazandaran.
In Iran, we have late second-millennium archeological evidence from
"Marlik" (objects made of horse teeth) and early first-millennium
skeletal remains from "Gian", "Tepe Sialk",
"Coga Zanbil", and "Susa". It is from this period
that large quantities of "Lurisatn Bronzes" have been
discovered, and among them are many harness bits and bridle pieces
as well as items for decorating horses heads and chests, of the
types which are depicted on Assyrian palace reliefs.
Bronze and iron harness and bridle pieces have been discovered at
Median sites, also Assyrian annals record and reliefs depict campaigns
in Media and Median tribute consisting primarily of horses. Especially
praised were the horses of "Nishaya" > Nesa, south
of Hamadan. Median levels at Nusheh-Jan near Hamadan have produced
remains of horses of varied sizes, from miniature horses that stood
1.05-1.10m to horses standing over 1.50m at the witheres and variation
from light to heavy types.
in Persian Literature:
From the dawn of history the Iranians have celebrated the horse
in their art and in their literature. The importance of horses
in the life of the Iranians assured them of a special place
in Persian literature. Numerous poets have left poems in praise
of or, occasionally ridicule of horses, sometimes with interesting
observation about good and bad points in a horse. Iranian traditions
abound with stories of famous horses and their significant roles
in heroic and historical events: Rakhsh (the famous horse of
the Hero Rostam), Shabrang (the horse of Siavosh), the stallion
of Dariush, "Pasacas" so untamable a horse that only
Cyrus the Younger could bring him under the saddle, "Shabdiz'
the horse of Khosrow II Parviz (the king loved the courser so
deeply that he had vowed to deprive of life whoever brought
him the news of its death and so when it died, no one dared
to reveal it to the king, and Barbad, the chief musician and
minstrel, devised a trick and averted the king's wrath).
Some Persian sources such as "Ghabus-nameh" and "Nouruz-Nameh"
have special chapters on horses, their colors and breeds.
horse in the Avesta:
Avestan hymns, especially the older "Yashts" abound with
praises of the horse. The gods themselves possessed fine horses:
"four speedy (horses) of one color, white, undying, reared
on supernatural food, the forehooves shod with gold but their hind
hooves with silver" drew the chariot of Mithra (Yasht 10.125).
Four white horses also drew the chariot of Sraosha (Yansa 57.27f).
The horse was primarily used for drawing war chariots, but its gradual
employment as a ridin animal is also attested in the Avesta, according
to which some heroes entered into battle fields or places of sacrifice
Horses were also offered to gods, and the Aban Yasht celebrates
many Iranian kings and heroes who sacrificed one hundred horses,
one thousand oxen, and ten thousand sheep to "Anahita"
asking her for special boons. An Avestan passage records that an
excellent horse was worth eight pregnant cows. The qualities of
a good horse were: swiftness, fleetness, endurance, and sharp eyesight.
Of colors, white was the most praised, then came dun, redbrown,
dark brown, and black. Strict rules were prescribed by the Avesta
concerning the breeding, grooming, training, and feeding of horses
and guardin them from diseases and harm.
is said that origin of Arab horse is Persia. In Iran we
call this breed az Asil, Tazi or Arab Horse. As we said
before in the page of Tazi dogs, the word Tazi in farsi
has 2 different means: (Arab and Galloping), and it's sure
that what we mean about these 2 animals is a dog or a horse
that gallops. But in the world and specialy in Western countries
people call this breed az Arab Horse.
Horse Arab is known as the most beautiful and famous horse
in the world which in actually it is the father of all oriental
or hot- blooded horses. Asil Horse divides to some strains
that the most important of them are: Kehilan, Hamdani,
Saglavi, Obyan, and Hadban.
comes in various colors Like: Bay, grey and white. Primary
Uses of Asil Horses are: Cross-breeding and Riding. The
center of Iranian Arabs in Iran, is Kerman, Khouzestan and
some Tribes in southwest of this country.
(Tazi) Horses of Iran
Horse, a rare riding horse from Turkmenistan (evolved
by the Teke and turkman tribes in oases, of Southern Turkmenia
and also Turkman-sahra ), east of the Caspian Sea and north
of Iran. This breed is one of the oldest horse breeds, almost
for 3000 years. Although the Akhal-Teke and related types
of horse have provided a base for the horse breeds of Asia
and Europe, this breed is all that remains of the original
fountainhead of horse breeds. An ideal horse for the desert,
it is also known for its phenomenal powers of endurance. The
breed became a modern legend in 1935 when several Turkamans
completed an 84 day, 4128 km trip from Ashkhabad, Turkmenistan,
to Moscow, Russia. This incredible journey, which included
966 km of desert with minimal rations of feed and water, has
never been equaled.
Akhal-Teke stands about 157.5 cm high at the withers (the
high part of the back, located between the shoulder blades).
Its long, narrow, tube like body has the fine, strong build
typical of desert horses. The legs and back are long, and
the withers are high. The long, slender neck is carried unusually
high, joining the body at a 45 degree angle&emdash;a distinguishing
characteristic of this breed. Large eyes and wide nostrils
give the fine boned face a bold expression. Large ears are
set wide apart.
has a distinctive metallic, golden sheen overlaying a fine
haired coat that can be colored dun (yellowish or bluish),
bay (reddish), gray, or black. Its mane and tail are silky
but sparse. It is ridden, raced, and used for show jumping,
dressage (guiding a horse through a series of complex maneuvers
with slight movements of the hands, legs, and weight of the
rider), and competitive long-distance riding.
is a resistant horse and in some extent similar to Arabs and
Kurds. This breed is usually kept in center of Iran (Fars).
is another small horse breed of Iran (with a high about 150
cm or lower). A strong and resistant horse ideal for mountainous
roads. This horse is an ancient breed with a long history
in Iran. There is three strains of this breed: Jaff,
Afshari and Sanjabi.
Jaf colors are mosetly: Bay, brown, chestnut, grey and it's
Primary Uses if for Saddle
Kurdish Horse of Iran
photo of Kurdish Horse from Iran
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